A variety of hands on approaches toward nutrient reduction has been somewhat successful in other water-bodies as well.The Tampa Bay estuary, the Chesapeake Bay area and the Baltic Sea have benefited through intentional efforts to lessen nutrient loading into the waters.Public awareness and governmental intervention has led to some success in these areas with ongoing habitat restoration in progress. Even so, the global proliferation of agricultural chemicals into the marine system coupled with other anthropogenic nutrient inputs may be compounded by climate change in the coming decades.Increasing temperatures, altered precipitation, physical oceanic changes, storm frequency, and adjustments in the rates of many biological processes may be modified in a way that could exacerbate the occurrence, regularity, and intensity of hypoxic conditions in marine waters.
Ways to reduce nutrient pollution in the marine environment include broad societal interventions that introduce a new paradigm of cultural change.Utilizing renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels, improving sewage treatment facilities for effluent emanating from both human waste and commercial animal production, and the reduction of agricultural nutrient loading through alternative methods of fertilizationare necessary first steps. Infrastructure improvements to mitigate storm water and erosion introduced nutrients is important, but more important is scientific research intended to educate the publicand gain its support coupled with industrial and governmental intervention and universal cooperation amongst stakeholders.
Successful biological approaches toward the alleviation of anthropogenic nutrient loading, commonly referred to as bioremediation, have been implemented using a number of methods that are cost-effective, efficient, and do not cause further ecological damage.The use and efficacy of biological agents such as bacteria,filter feeding organisms, and macroalgae in integrated marine aquacultureand wastewater treatment is increasing. The benefits of integrated aquaculture are becoming more well known as studies conclude, environmental benefits become apparent, and profits are realized.Waste water management and treatment is an area where more research is needed before large scale nutrient removal systems can be developed and utilized that are both economical and effective.
The threat to marine biodiversity due to the environmental degradation caused by continual nutrient loading is clear. Even so, comprehensive biological methods as an attempt to revive dead zones with the sole intent of habitat restoration in the marine environment are sparse.There are however, a number of unconventional techniques that involve biological mitigation methods of nutrient pollution that are not frequently utilized due to the risks of the species becoming invasive, questions regarding the potential efficacy, uncertainty of economic gain, and overall benefit to the system.Even so, demonstrated bioremediatory methods exist that should be employed to manage coastal waters as a natural approach toward alleviating anthropogenically induced eutrophication.Organic approaches for pollution mitigation should be part of long-term coastal zone management policy to ensure healthy marine ecosystems today and into the future.